Some of the answers here have given you some great starting points. But to truely learn about SEO it might be worth looking at some cutting edge stuff.
Content Marketing isn’t new. It has been around for a while but social media platforms has given it new momentum. It’s all about writing quality relevant articles around your products and services for your customers. This isn’t sales.
People find businesses not by searching company names or even products. Instead they search questions to their problems. If you publish blog posts that help customers answer these problems then they will find you.
There’s so much content out there, people don’t have the time to sometimes find it. People analyse your webpage in a split second and if it isn’t relevant or looks rubbish then they’re gone. That’s why you need quality written stuff. Even video is helping to boost SEO for people/businesses.
Enough said … A lot of learning is done through practice. Get out there and get stuck in.
Google Panda Update
Content Marketing intro on Slideshare
Linkedin Answers – I gave a similar answer not that long ago.
Video SEO blog post